It is no secret that the Java language is highly derived from the C and C++ languages. Because C++ is currently one of the more popular game programming languages, it is important to understand the aspects of C++ that Java inherits. Of possibly even more importance are the aspects of C++ that Java doesn't support. Because Java is an entirely new language, it was possible for the language architects at Sun to pick and choose which features from C++ to implement in Java and how to implement them.
The focus of this appendix is to point out the differences between Java and C++. If you are a C++ programmer, you can appreciate the differences between Java and C++. Even if you don't have any C++ experience, you can gain some insight into the Java language by understanding the C++ discrepancies that it clears up in its implementation. If you have a C/C++ game you are thinking of porting to Java, this appendix will help you sort out the major areas to target in your porting efforts.
Because C++ backwardly supports C, many of the differences pointed out in this appendix refer to C++, but inherently apply to C as well.
All C/C++ compilers implement a stage of compilation known as the preprocessor. Part of the responsibility of the C++ preprocessor is to perform an intelligent search and replace on identifiers that have been declared using the #define or #typedef directives. Although most advocators of C++ discourage this usage of the preprocessor, which was inherited from C, it is still widely used by most C++ programmers. Most of the processor definitions in C++ are stored in header files, which complement the actual source code files.
The problem with the preprocessor approach is that it provides an easy way for programmers to inadvertently add unnecessary complexity to a program. Many programmers using the #define and #typedef directives end up inventing their own sublanguage within the confines of a particular project. This results in other programmers having to go through the header files and sort out all of the #define and #typedef information to understand a program, which makes code maintenance and reuse almost impossible. An additional problem with the preprocessor approach is that it is very weak when it comes to type checking and validation.
Java does not have a preprocessor. It provides similar functionality (#define, #typedef, and so on) to that provided by the C++ preprocessor, but with far more control. Constant data members are used in place of the #define directive, and class definitions are used in lieu of the #typedef directive. The end result is that Java source code is much more consistent and easier to read than C++ source code. Additionally, Java programs don't use header files; the Java compiler builds class definitions directly from the source code files, which contain both class definitions and method implementations.
Most developers agree that the misuse of pointers causes the majority of bugs in C/C++ programming. Put simply, when you have pointers, you have the ability to trash memory. C++ programmers regularly use complex pointer arithmetic to create and maintain dynamic data structures. In return, C++ programmers spend a lot of time hunting down complex bugs caused by their complex pointer arithmetic.
The Java language does not support pointers. Java provides similar functionality by making heavy use of references. Java passes all arrays and objects by reference. This approach prevents common errors due to pointer mismanagement. It also makes programming easier in a lot of ways because the correct usage of pointers is easily misunderstood by all but the most seasoned programmers.
You might be thinking that the lack of pointers in Java will keep you from being able to implement many data structures such as dynamic arrays. The reality is that any pointer task can be carried out just as easily, and more reliably, with objects and arrays of objects. You then benefit from the security provided by the Java runtime system; it performs boundary checking on all array indexing operations.
C++ has three types of complex data types: classes, structures, and unions. Java only implements one of these data types: classes. Java forces programmers to use classes when the functionality of structures and unions is desired. Although this sounds like more work for the programmer, it actually ends up being more consistent, because classes can imitate structures and unions with ease. The Java designers really wanted to keep the language simple, so it only made sense to eliminate aspects of the language that overlapped.
In C, code is organized into functions, which are defaulted as global subroutines accessible to a program. C++ added classes and, in doing so, provided class methods, which are functions that are connected to classes. C++ class methods are very similar to Java class methods. However, because C++ still supports C, nothing is discouraging C++ programmers from using functions. This results in a mixture of function and method use that makes for confusing programs.
Java has no functions. Being a more pure object-oriented language than C++, Java forces programmers to bundle all routines into class methods. No limitation is imposed by forcing programmers to use methods instead of functions. As a matter of fact, implementing routines as methods encourages programmers to better organize code. Keep in mind that, strictly speaking, nothing is wrong with the procedural approach of using functions; it just doesn't mix well with the object-oriented paradigm that defines the core of Java.
Multiple inheritance is a feature of C++ that enables you to derive a class from multiple parent classes. Although multiple inheritance is indeed powerful, it is complicated to use correctly and causes lots of problems otherwise. It is also very complicated to implement from the compiler perspective.
Java takes the high road and provides no direct support for multiple inheritance. You can implement functionality similar to multiple inheritance by using interfaces in Java. Java interfaces provide object method descriptions, but contain no implementations.
C and C++ have no built-in support for text strings. The standard technique adopted among C and C++ programmers is that of using null-terminated arrays of characters to represent strings.
In Java, strings are implemented as first class objects (String and StringBuffer), meaning that they are at the core of the Java language. Java's implementation of strings as objects provides several advantages:
The dreaded goto statement is pretty much a relic these Chapters even in C and C++, but it is technically a legal part of the languages. The goto statement has historically been cited as the cause for messy, impossible to understand, and sometimes even impossible to predict code known as "spaghetti code." The primary usage of the goto statement has merely been as a convenience to substitute not thinking through an alternative, more structured branching technique.
For all of these reasons and more, Java does not provide a goto statement. The Java language specifies goto as a keyword, but its usage is not supported. I suppose the Java designers wanted to eliminate the possibility of even using goto as an identifier! Not including goto in the Java language simplifies the language and helps eliminate the option of writing messy code.
Operator overloading, which is considered a prominent feature in C++, is not supported in Java. Although roughly the same functionality can be implemented by classes in Java, the convenience of operator overloading is still missing. However, in defense of Java, operator overloading can sometimes become very tricky. Undoubtedly the Java developers decided not to support operator overloading in order to keep the Java language as simple as possible.
Automatic coercion refers to the implicit casting of data types that sometimes occurs in C and C++. For example, in C++ you are allowed to assign a float value to an int variable, which can result in a loss of information. Java does not support C++ style automatic coercions. In Java, if a coercion will result in a loss of data, you must always explicitly cast the data element to the new type.
C and C++ allow you to declare functions that take a variable number of arguments, such as printf. Although this is a convenient feature, it is impossible for the compiler to thoroughly type check the arguments, which means problems can arise at runtime without you knowing it. Again, Java takes the high road and doesn't support variable arguments at all.
The command-line arguments passed from the system into a Java program differ in a couple of ways from the command-line arguments passed into a C++ program. First, the number of parameters passed differs between the two languages. In C and C++, the system passes two arguments to a program: argc and argv. argc specifies the number of arguments stored in argv. argv is a pointer to an array of characters containing the actual arguments. In Java, the system passes a single value to a program: args. args is an array of Strings that contains the command-line arguments.
In C and C++, the command-line arguments passed into a program include the name used to invoke the program. This name always appears as the first argument, and it is rarely ever used. In Java, you already know the name of the program because it is the same name as the class, so there is no need to pass this information as a command-line argument. Therefore, the Java runtime system only passes the arguments following the name that invoked the program.
You learned in this appendix about the differences between Java and C++. Although no knowledge of C++ is required for Java game programming, it can certainly be beneficial to understand where Java inherits many of its features.