Working With Clients
With almost every NT server there are NT clients. These clients must be defined to the NT server domain before the clients can have access to the domain. Once defined, the clients must be configured to access the network.
In certain cases a Windows NT server might be sitting on a LAN offering services for which client software is not necessary, but more often than not, the Windows NT server will have clients that require an authenticated logon, or at least access to the file and print services that an NT Server has to offer.
In order for client computers to be able to attach to the Windows NT server, they must have the necessary software and proper configuration. This chapter discusses the client software available with Microsoft Windows NT Server, which one to use, and how to configure them. A detailed look at the administrative tasks that are required on the server side are covered in Chapter 18, Administering the Server.
The Windows NT Server CD-ROM includes the client software for MS-DOS, Windows 3.1, and OS/2. The Windows NT Workstation client software is included as part of Windows NT Workstation and is available only on the Windows NT Workstation CD-ROM. The Windows 95 client software for NT networks in included with Windows 95. Windows For Workgroups also includes it's own NT client software, and must be purchased separately.
I will also be mentioning the Network Client Administrator, which is a Windows NT Server utility that deals with the installation of client software for Windows NT Server. The Network Client Administrator can, among other things, create installation disks for Windows NT clients. A detailed discussion of The Network Client Administrator appears in Chapter 24, Network Client Administrator.
In all cases of installing Windows NT Server domain client software, you must be sure that both the servers and the client are running the same protocols. More precisely, the client must be running at least one of the protocols that are active on the Windows NT Server domain controllers for authentication, and any other Windows NT server that has resources that the client requires. In planning the entire network, one or more common protocols should have been selected.
Configuring the Windows NT Server
Before you can have client workstations attach to your NT network, you must perform certain tasks on the NT server. This includes establishing standards and conventions before actually adding the user accounts through the NT administrative programs.
Each client on a Windows NT network must first be established with an account in the Windows NT domain. This is accomplished using the User Manager for Domains (Figure 9.1).
In general, users are established by identifying their user name, password, permissions, and group memberships. Other configuration properties for each user are customized user profiles, logon scripts, home directories, logon hours, and ability to utilize Remote Access Services (RAS) for logging on to the domain.
User Manager for Domains.
A user profile can be assigned to a user if the user is running Windows NT as a workstation operating system.
A logon script can also be assigned to a user running any operating system. The logon script can be either a batch file (.BAT or .CMD) or an .EXE file. The specified logon script is executed on the client's computer at the time of logon authentication. Examples of logon script commands include the execution of an anti-virus scanning on the client's local hard drive, calling another batch file, and attaching to network resources, as well as any other process specific to the user name that should be executed each time the client logs onto the domain.
Table 9.1 shows the variables that can be set from within a logon script.
Table 9.1. Logon script environment variables.
|ComSpec ||Directory for CMD.EXE|
|LibPath ||Directories to search for Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs)|
|OS2LibPath ||Directories to search for Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs) under OS/2 subsystem|
|Path ||Directories to search for executable program files|
|WinDir ||Directory in which Windows NT is installed|
Following is a sample batch file that can be used as a logon script:
net use o: \\server\c-drive
net use p: \\server\e-drive
net use lpt2: \\server\hp
net use n: \\server\d
net use m: \\server\maildata
Logon scripts are created using any text editor, such as Notepad, and must be save as unformatted ASCII files.
You might decide not to use logon scripts because persistent drive attachments and printer attachments might be sufficient to handle logon requirements.
Logon scripts should be created in a subdirectory called SYSTEM32\REPL\IMPORT\SCRIPTS under the main NT directory. If your domain has more than one domain controller, the contents of the IMPORT\SCRIPTS directory should also be placed in the SYSTEM32\REPL\EXPORT\SCRIPTS directory and replication should be set up to distribute these logon scripts to the other domain controllers.
A home directory can be specified for users that are running Windows NT as their operating system.
A user's home directory is a directory on an NT server or NT workstation that the user can choose to store files and program in. When a home directory is assigned to a user through the User Manager for Domains, this directory will become the current directory whenever the user brings up a File Open or File Save dialog box. It also becomes the current directory when the user opens a command prompt or runs a program that does not have a working directory assigned to it.
Home directories can be shared by multiple users, but it is in the administrator's best interest to keep a separate directory for each user in case the user leaves the domain. The administrator needs to either migrate the contents of the directory to another domain, or if the user is no longer part of the infrastructure the entire directory can be deleted.
A properly implemented home directory can make it easy for a user to back up all of his or her data files. In most cases this directory should be on the user's local hard drive; however, if the user's hard drive space is limited, a network share should be created to allow the user to use space a server's hard drive.
By default, Windows NT Server creates a USERS\DEFAULT directory on the Windows NT workstation. If no home directory is specified by the administrator, this directory is used as the home directory.
System environment parameters are assigned for home directories, and can be used in batch files and logon scripts. Table 9.2 shows these parameters.
Table 9.2. Batch file and logon script parameters.
|Parameter name||Definition||Default value
|%homedrive% ||Drive where the home directory is located||Drive where the Windows NT system files are installed|
|%homepath% ||Pathname of the home directory||\USERS\DEFAULT |
|%homedir% ||Redirected drive letter on the user's computer that refers to the share point for the user's home directory||No default value|
|%homeshare% ||UNC name of the shared directory containing the home directory, or a local or redirected drive letter||No default value|
Additional environment parameters are available that have values already assigned by Windows NT. Table 9.3 shows these, which can be used in batch files and logon scripts.
Table 9.3. Additional batch file and logon script parameters.
|%os% ||The operating system of the user's workstation|
|%processor_architecture% ||The processor architecture (such as Intel) of the user's workstation|
|%processor_level% ||The type of processor (such as 486) of the user's workstation|
|%userdomain% ||The domain containing the user's account|
|%user name%|| The user name of the user|
Special Considerations when Configuring the Server for Windows NT Workstation Clients
For clients running Windows NT Workstation, each individual workstation must be added to the domain in order to participate in authentication by a domain controller. This is accomplished by using the Server Manager from the Windows NT Server Administrative Tools.
From the Computer menu in Server Manager, choose Add To Domain. This dialog enables you to add Windows NT workstations, Windows NT servers that have been installed as servers, and Windows NT servers that have been configured as backup domain controllers. Enter the computer name of the Windows NT Workstation client and click Add. Once this is completed, that Windows NT Workstation client will be able to log on to the domain
Things To Know Before You Set Up a Client For Microsoft Networking
Regardless of the operating system that the potential Windows NT Server client is running on their computer, there is information that will be needed in advance of running the client configuration procedures.
The following subsections describe these items, which should be researched.
The Client's Computer Name
This is name that can be up to 15 characters in length and cannot contain any spaces. This name will be used to identify the computer, not the user/client, to Microsoft Networking. This name must be unique to the network.
The Domain or Workgroup Name
With Windows NT network, the domain name will be used; however, both Windows For Workgroups and Windows 95 have dialogs that will ask for a workgroup name. The domain name should be substituted for the workgroup name. Workgroups are used for peer-to-peer networking.
A Computer Description
This is a free-form text description for the computer. This will be displayed along with Computer Names as a more descriptive way to identify the computer.
Type Of Network Adapter
The brand name and model of the network adapter is needed for all of the client setup programs. An alternative to installing a network adapter would be using the Remote Access Services client; however that is discussed in Chapter 23, Implementing Remote Access Service. This discussion will assume that a network adapter card is being used in each client machine.
Windows 95, Windows For Workgroups, and Windows NT Workstation ship with a plethora of drivers for network adapter cards; however, I have found that it might be necessary to obtain more recent drivers directly from the hardware manufacturer to ensure a smooth installation of the network adapter card.
Before setting up clients, I usually call CompuServe and use the PC File Finder (GO IBMFF) to hunt for updated drivers. Sometimes a recently purchased card comes with a disk or CD-ROM that contains updated drivers. However, using an online service such as CompuServe or the hardware manufacturer's own BBS or Web page will usually offer the most recent drivers available.
Network Adapter Hardware Settings
For network interface cards that aren't plug and play, the proper settings, such as IRQ, DMA, and ROM address, are needed to allow the Microsoft Networking client to work with the adapter.
Each of the different clients might require additional information, but what I have discussed in this section is the primary data that must be known in advance of the installation of client software.
Windows NT Server Client Setup
In of the following scenarios for setting up clients for a Windows NT Server domain, I explain the various utilities available to connect to shared printers and drives. Although these utilities are very useful, I have always found that it is a good idea to be familiar with the command-line option of connecting to these resources. For troubleshooting purposes, it might be necessary to bypass the GUI utilities or pop-up utility and use the NET USE command to test connectivity or permissions.
The MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows 3.x Clients
Microsoft LAN Manager was at one time Microsoft's only network operating system. This form of networking used networking concepts that are still being used in Windows NT Server. Curiously enough, the MS-DOS/Windows 3.x client software for Windows NT Server is the same client software that would be used to attach to a Microsoft LAN Manager 2.1 server, and is clearly identified as such in the README.TXT file that accompanies it.
Current users of Microsoft LAN Manager will be able to keep their client software unless they are not running the latest version. They should upgrade it if it is not the latest revision, which is, at the time of this writing, version 3.0.
In order for a DOS, the Microsoft Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS, or Windows 3.x client to log onto a Windows NT server, it is necessary to run the Network Client Full Redirector. This redirector loads DOS drivers that occupy about 100KB of memory. It is because of this overhead that the DOS redirector is the least preferred method of attaching into an NT server.
The software required for the Network Client Redirector is located on the Windows NT Server CD-ROM in the CLIENTS\MSCLIENT directory. You can also install the required software to a share on the server created by the Network Client Administrator.
Setup for the Microsoft Network Client v3.0 for MS-DOS.
The default path for installing the Microsoft Network Client v3.0 for MS-DOS.
Install the client software by running SETUP.EXE from the disk, network share, or CD-ROM.
The Network Client Administrator program can copy the Microsoft Client for DOS installation files to your server and create a share point so that clients can do the install from the server itself. The Network Client Administration program creates a boot disk that will load the appropriate drivers and run the right commands to get your client attached to the server and give access to the share point that has Microsoft Network Client for DOS installation files.
The first screen, shown in Figure 9.2, welcomes the user and identifies the client software. After proceeding, the setup program prompts for a target directory to install its files into. As shown in Figure 9.3, by default the directory name is C:\NET. Before the files are copied to the client's hard drive, a list of settings is displayed. Move the light bar to each line and press Enter to choose the appropriate settings (as shown in Figure 9.4). First, enter the name of the user. This user name must be added to the user list on a Windows NT domain controller before the client can obtain an authenticated logon to the network. Next are basic setup options (as shown in Figure 9.5), which include choosing the proper redirector to load.
Settings for the Microsoft Network Client v3.0 for MS-DOS.
Startup options for the Microsoft Network Client v3.0 for MS-DOS.
To be authenticated by the server, you must load the Network Client Full Redirector. The Network Client Basic Redirector, which uses only half the memory of the Network Client Full Redirector, is sufficient enough to allow clients to attach to shares and print queues on the server, but gives them limited capabilities.
You must specify whether you want to load the Network Client on bootup (see Figure 9.6) if you want an authenticated logon. (If not, the guest account will be used on the domain, but only if the guest account is enabled.) You must also specify whether the hot key for the Net pop-up box will be changed. (See Figure 9.7.)
Changing the startup options for the Microsoft Network Client v3.0 for MS-DOS.
Domain logon options for the Microsoft Network Client v3.0 for MS-DOS.
You must specify the type of network card you are using (see Figure 9.8), which will load drivers that come with NT Server or from a disk that you have gotten with your NIC. These settings are saved in the directory containing the client software in the SYSTEM.INI and PROTOCOL.INI files. Protocols are also chosen here. The protocols that are available are NETBeui, NWLink (IPX-compatible), Microsoft DLC, and TCP/IP.
Adapter selection screen for the Microsoft Network Client v3.0 for MS-DOS.
The network adapter drivers that ship with the DOS/Windows client software is very limited, so be sure to have drivers obtained from the hardware manufacturer if you want to ensure a clean installation.
The modifications made to the DOS startup files are
- IFSHLP.SYS is added to CONFIG.SYS
- NET START is added to AUTOEXEC.BAT
After you set up the parameters, the files are copied to the workstation's hard drive. Upon completion of the installation of the Microsoft Network Client for DOS, the status of the installation will be displayed. In the example shown in Figure 9.9, a PC that had used the multiconfig feature of MS-DOS 6.x could not have its configuration files modified by the setup program. In this case, the appropriate commands were put into copies of AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS in the target directory. These commands would then have to be inserted manually into the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS in the root directory of the C: drive. Otherwise, the commands would have been placed in the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS directly.
Completion screen for the Microsoft Network Client v3.0 for MS-DOS.
These modifications will then enable you to log onto the server. After you reboot the PC, the client software can be enabled.
Starting the Network Client Basic Redirector is handled by using the NET START command. For an authenticated logon, the NET START FULL command must be issued. The NET command, which has many parameters (that are all discussed later), can be used alone to start the basic redirector, which is also known as the workstation service. The NET command by itself brings up the Workstation Client pop-up interface. This utility allows you to point and click to attach to shares and print queues. When you use the NET START WORKSTATION command, you will make a non-authenticated attachment to the server, and not bring up the NET utility program.
The first dialog to appear when using the NET command is Disk Connections (see Figure 9.10), which allows the client to make attachments to shared drives on NT servers, and other PCs that have Microsoft drive sharing enabled. Pressing Ctrl+S will bring up the Printer Connections dialog (see Figure 9.11), which allows for redirecting the output of printer ports to network printers. Pressing Ctrl+S again causes the Disk Connections dialog to be displayed again. Pressing the Esc key causes the NET pop-up box to unload. The NET pop-up can also be configured as a 29KB TSR that is accessable from any DOS application.
The NET pop-up utilityDisk Connections.
The NET pop-up utilityPrinter Connections.
With the Network Client Basic Redirector, attachments to drives and printers before starting Windows 3.x will remain in effect during the Windows 3.x session; however, no other attaching can be done from within Windows 3.x.
To start the full redirector, which is necessary for full functionality under Windows 3.x and also allows for a domain logon, use the NET START FULL command. If the NT Server has been configured with a logon script, that script will now be executed.
Also included with the Microsoft Network Client for DOS is the DOS-based Remote Access Services (RAS) client. A batch file, RASCOPY.BAT will appear in the Microsoft Network Client for DOS directory. The files that it is looking to copy are located on the Windows NT Server CD-ROM in the CLIENTS\RAS directory.
Besides using the pop-up utility for DOS to connect to shares and print queues, you should become familiar with the NET command. The NET command gives you all of the functionality that is in the Workstation Client pop-up utility plus more, but it is totally command-line driven. This allows you to create batch files to run various network utilities. The NET command will allow you to
- Load the Workstation Client pop-up utility as a TSR
- Test the hardware connection between two computers running the DOS Network Client Redirector
- Display information about the Network Client Redirector version
- Load protocol drivers and network adapter drivers without binding them to the Protocol Manager
- Log on to the server and reconnect to persistent connections
- Log off from the server
- Change your password
- Check the status of print queues
- Unload the Network Client Redirector
- Synchronize your system clock with the server's clock
- Attach to shares or redirect LPT ports to a print queue
- View a list of available shared resources on the network
Although the Network Client Full Redirector is the only way to be fully authenticated by an NT Server domain controller, the Network Client Basic Redirector uses DOS conventional memory sparinglyyet still allows for basic functionality. Resources on the server that are available to NT Server's guest account will also be available to basic redirector clients. If the client running the Network Client Basic Redirector has permissions giving them access to shared resources that are not available to the guest account, those resources will not be available. Non-secure environments can use the Network Client Basic Redirector for their clients; however, more secure environments will want to load the Network Client Full Redirector for full authentication.
This is mainly because the guest account might be removed in a more secure environment. It is also necessary to use the Network Client Full Redirector to allow for network functionality under Windows 3.x. Without the Network Client Full Redirector, Windows 3.x will not recognize that the client is connected to a network, therefore disabling all network functions.
In Windows 3.x, it is necessary to install support for Microsoft networking. This is done by using the Windows Setup, which can be invoked by either through the DOS-based SETUP.EXE or the Windows Setup icon in the Main program group, and specifying that you are using Microsoft LAN Manager. This will give you full functionality of attaching to shares and print queues through the Windows-based client software that will be installed after making this selection.
As shown in Figure 9.12, choose Microsoft LAN Manager 2.1 Enhanced for the Network setting.
Adding Microsoft networking support to Windows 3.1.
The Windows 3.x client for Microsoft Networks, even with the Network Client Full Redirector, is limited in its features compared to the client software for Windows For Workgroups, Windows 95, or Windows NT Workstation.
Network connection in Windows 3.1.
To attach to network drives under Windows 3.x, use the Disk menu in File Manager and choose Network Connections. The Network Connection dialog (see Figure 9.13) will allow you to choose the drive letter to use, but you must manually type in the UNC for the share you are connecting to.
This lack of point-and-click ease of use makes this client software a poor example of what usually makes the Windows environment shine.
Attaching to a printer in Windows 3.1.
The Network Connections dialog in Print Manager (see Figure 9.14) is similar to the drive connections in that you can choose a printer port, but must manually type in the UNC for the shared printer name.
I highly recommend that any DOS or Windows 3.x client is upgraded to Windows For Workgroups, Windows 95, or Windows NT Workstation. These operating systems have client software that truly exploits the Windows environment and makes accessing the NT Server much easier. Besides that, the 100KB overhead that the DOS/Windows 3.x client has is one big chunk and cannot he loaded high, so you don't have a chance of running your client workstation on more that 540KB. In my experience, this makes Windows 3.x much less stable and the chances of opening multiple applications, regardless of the amount of extended memory on the PC, is almost nonexistent.
Be aware that DOS and Windows 3.x clients cannot see the long filenames that might be stored on the Windows NT Server. They will instead see the eight-character, three-character extension DOS filenames that are generated for DOS clients.
Control Panel network settings in Windows 3.1.
The Windows for Workgroups Client
One of the major enhancements on Windows 3.x that appears in Windows for Workgroups is the full support for Windows NT Server clients. Besides the peer-to-peer networking that is inherent in Windows For Workgroups, the Windows NT Server client comes on the Windows for Workgroups installation disks.
Be aware that there are updated files on the Windows NT Server CD-ROM that fix certain problems related to speed on the network. If you are installing Windows for Workgroups from the shrink-wrap version or using a pre-installed OEM copy, you will need to copy the few files that are on the Windows NT Server CD-ROM in the CLIENTS\UPDATE.WFW directory to your WINDOWS\SYSTEM directory.
From within the Windows For Workgroups installation program or from the Network Setup program in the Network program group (see Figure 9.16), you need to tell Windows For Workgroups that you want to install support for Microsoft Networking. The Networks Setup program (see Figure 9.17) gives you the ability to add network support, network adapter drivers, enable file and printer sharing, and install protocols.
The Network setup icon for Windows for Workgroups.
Network setup program for Windows for Workgroups.
By clicking the Networks button another dialog (see Figure 9.18) pops up that will allow you to choose Install Microsoft Windows Network.
Choosing network support in Windows for Workgroups.
Because Windows for Workgroups includes support for peer-to-peer networking, you can choose to create shares on the client computer and make printers attached to the client available to the network. Sharing a printer this way can allow you to create a print queue on the NT Server that people will use instead of the Print Manager running on the client's computer. This is a great option, because this will place the print spool on the NT Server instead of on the client computer. You can choose to share files and printers by clicking the Sharing button and clicking the checkbox for the options you want to enable. (See Figure 9.19.)
Sharing options for Windows for Workgroups.
Clicking the Drivers button allows you to install Network Interface Cards and protocols. (See Figure 9.20.) Choose from the list of included NIC drivers (see Figure 9.21), or use the driver that came with the client's NIC. The installable protocols (see Figure 9.22) include NETBeui, which is the default for Microsoft Networking on the client side, and NWLink, which is Microsoft's IPX-compatible protocol. The Windows NT Server CD-ROM also includes the 32-bit version of Microsoft's TCP/IP, which is installable through this dialog by selecting the item Other and then, when prompted, pointing to the CLIENTS\TCP32WFW directory on the Windows NT Server CD-ROM.
Network Drivers setup for Windows for Workgroups.
Choosing network adapters for Windows for Workgroups.
Protocol selections for Windows For Workgroups.
Once the network drivers are configured, Windows for Workgroups needs to be configured to log onto the Windows NT domain.
This is done through the Networks icon located in the Windows For Workgroups Control Panel. This dialog, shown in Figure 9.23, allows the user to change their computer name, a description, and also change the workgroup.
Identifying the client to the Network in Windows for Workgroups.
The client's computer name should be something that is meaningful to you as an administrator. When browsing through the computers on your domain, you will see all of these computers listed. A descriptive name will enable to identify the computer easier. The description field should also be used to properly identify the client. I would suggest using the client's full name for this description. Or, in the case of client's using different computers, use the description and name to indicate the physical location or purpose for the computer.
The workgroup is a virtual workgroup that can be used by clients running the Microsoft Network Client. By naming a common workgroup, clients can have access to disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and printers that have been designated by the clients that are running the appropriate client software that allows them share these resources.
When installing Microsoft Networking on a Windows for Workgroup client, the default value for the workgroup name will be WORKGROUP. Remember this when you browse the network for computers and find a few of them in their own little workgroup named WORKGROUP. This will probably mean that they have not been configured correctly. The default value for the computer name is the first eight characters in the name that was used during the installation of Windows For Workgroups. For example, my default computer name would be ROBERTRE. This should also be reviewed and changed if necessary.
It is from this dialog that a client can also logon or logoff from Microsoft Networking. The row of buttons at the bottom of the dialog are used to configure various other options for networking.
Startup options for Windows for Workgroups.
The most important, from the standpoint of Windows NT Server, is the Startup button. Clicking this button will bring up the Startup Settings dialog. (See Figure 9.24.) This is where the client can configure these items:
- Logging onto Microsoft Networking when Windows For Workgroups first starts
- Enabling Network DDE services
- Ghosted, or nonestablished, network drive connections
- Starting the Win pop-up dialog service
- Logging onto either a Windows NT Server domain or a Microsoft LAN Manager domain
- The Microsoft NT or LAN Manager domain name
- The display of a confirmation dialog for logging onto a server
- Changing a password
- The CPU time slice given up for sharing resources on the client's computer
Specific to Windows NT Server is checking the box that states Log On To Windows NT or LAN Manager Domain. Having this box checked will force Windows For Workgroups to authenticate a logon to the named domain whenever Windows For Workgroups is started.
If an authenticated logon takes place and the box that states Don't Display Message on Successful Logon is left unchecked, a confirmation dialog indicating the user name and level of authentication will appear each time Windows For Workgroups is started. At this point, if a logon script is defined for the client, the logon script will run within a DOS window.
As with the MS-DOS and Windows 3.x client software installation, the client's modifications made to the DOS startup files are
- IFSHLP.SYS is added to CONFIG.SYS.
- NET START is added to AUTOEXEC.BAT.
In addition, changes are made to the SYSTEM.INI file in the WINDOWS directory and a PROTOCOL.INI file is created in the WINDOWS directory.
Attaching to shared resources on the server can be done either through the command line with the NET USE command, or by using File Manager and Print Manager.
Connecting to a network drive in Windows for Workgroups.
Clicking the Disk menu in File Manager and choosing Connect Network Drive allows the client to see a list of servers and workstations on the network that have file sharing enabled. The client can then choose an available drive letter and select a share to associate with that drive letter. (See Figure 9.25.)
In Print Manager, you can associate a network printer with a printer port by clicking the Printer menu and then selecting Connect Network Printer. The resulting dialog (see Figure 9.26) shows a list of printer ports, and, if the Browse button is chosen or the Always Browse checkbox is checked, all of the available network printers will be listed.
Connecting to a network printer in Windows for Workgroups.
Be aware that Windows for Workgroups clients cannot see the long filenames that might be stored on the Windows NT Server. They will instead see the eight-dot-three DOS filenames that are generated for DOS clients. If you have implemented the use of long filenames via an NT Workstation or Windows 95 PC, you should upgrade all of your networked PCs to these advanced operating systems.
The Windows 95 Client
With Windows 95, Microsoft has integrated their Windows NT Server client in such a way that makes it truly part of the operating system.
Windows 95 also opens up many options for installation, and can be pre-configured, using the Windows 95 Setup Editor. I will discuss this type of setup later, but first I will explain the ways to manually set up a Windows NT Server client running on Windows 95.
As with the other clients, Windows NT Server's Network Client Administrator can create a share point on the Windows NT Server for the installation of Windows 95. A startup disk can be created as well that gets the client onto the server and points to the Windows 95 installation files directory. If the client is already a Microsoft Networking client, running an earlier version of Windows, the upgrade to Windows 95 can also be performed using this directory as the source of the Windows 95 files. And lastly, the commercial issue of Windows 95 can be used as well.
If the client is running Windows For Workgroups or Windows 3.x and is already configured for Microsoft Networking, the current settings will be carried over to Windows 95.
If Windows 95 is a new installation, the installation program will ask the client if support for Microsoft networking should be installed.
The installation process of the client software is very similar to the Windows For Workgroups client support installation; however, Windows 95 was designed to better fit into heterogeneous networks, and Microsoft Networking is only one of many types of network support that can be installed through the network setup portion of the Windows 95 installation.
As you can see, the Windows 95 dialog boxes for setting up the network client is similar, though more advanced than Windows For Workgroups.
When installing Windows 95, the user is asked for a logon name and password for Windows 95. This is the first item that needs to be considered when readying a client for access to a Windows NT domain. To use Microsoft's single logon feature, the Windows 95 user name should be the same as the user name set up on the Windows NT Server. This way, when the client logs onto the network, the same user name will be used for logging onto the actual workstation. Additionally, if support for other networks is going to be installed, using the same user name for all networks and for the Windows 95 workstation will enable the single logon feature.
If these user names are not synchronized between the Windows 95 logon, the Windows NT Server logon and any other network logons, the user will be prompted for the user name for each attachment wherein that user name does not exist. This is not necessarily the case for clients that have different user names for Windows 95 and Windows NT Server, but this will be addressed in the discussion of the Primary Network Logon later in this chapter.
The Windows 95 Control Panel has an icon titled Network that contains all of the settings that are pertinent to setting up the user for access to a Windows NT domain, among other networks. It is also the place to install and configure networking protocols, peer-to-peer networking, and other networking services that is offered by Windows 95 and third-party developers.
The following description of the Network configuration dialog includes tasks that can be performed during the initial installation of Windows 95, or after Windows 95 has been installed.
Windows 95 introduces the Network Component. These components include Network Clients, Network Adapters, protocol stacks, and network services.
Windows 95 uses the protected-mode virtual device driver VREDIR.VXD to allow the Windows 95 workstation to communicate with any Microsoft Networks-compatible computer. This includes other Windows 95 workstations, Windows NT servers and workstations, Windows For Workgroups workstations, and DOS computers running the Workgroup Add-on For MS-DOS.
Windows 95 Network Control Panel applet.
The Network dialog in Control Panel has three tabs. (See Figure 9.27.) The first tab, Configuration, is the tab that needs to be selected for adding support for a Windows NT network.
To add support for a Windows NT network, use the Add button in the Network dialog. This will display the Select Network Component Type dialog. (See Figure 9.28.) Select Client from the list and click Add. Windows 95 has many choices for network clients, including Novell, Banyan, and SunSoft clients. Choose Microsoft from the Manufacturers list (see Figure 9.29) and highlight Client For Microsoft Networks in the Network Clients list. Click the OK button, and the Client For Microsoft Networks will appear on the list of installed network components. Repeat the process to add a network adapter, and to add additional protocols. (See Figure 9.30.)
Selecting a network component type to add for Windows 95.
Selecting the Network Client.
The Windows 95 Protocol Selection dialog.
For clients of a Windows NT domain, when you are adding a protocol, be sure to select Microsoft as the manufacturer. The protocols listed for Microsoft are all included with Windows 95 and are compatible with Windows NT Server.
In addition to steps I've described, you can also add services (see Figure 9.31), such as File And Print Sharing For Microsoft Networks, which enables the built-in, peer-to-peer functionality in Windows 95. In the context of this guide, the only reason you might want to enable this is if you have upgraded from a workgroup environment and still want to give access to a printer connected locally to your computer, or access to your local hard drive(s).
Adding a network service to Windows 95.
After the Client For Microsoft Networks had been installed, you need to configure it to allow the client to log onto the Windows NT domain each time Windows 95 is started.
You can accomplish this by highlighting Client For Microsoft Networks in the list of installed Network Components. Click the Properties button to bring up the Client For Microsoft Network Properties dialog. (See Figure 9.32.) This dialog lets you tell Windows 95 to log you onto the named Windows NT domain, and how to restore persistent connections, each time Windows 95 is started.
Settings For Microsoft networking on Windows 95.
When you choose Quick Logon, the Network Client will not verify attached drives until you actually try to use the network shares. This will slow down the first you go to access a network share, but speeds up the logon process. Click the OK button to save these settings, and you're well on your way to establishing yourself as a network client.
Password caching must not be disabled as a system policy for Quick Logon to work.
After the appropriate client, protocols, and network adapter has been identified, click the Identification tab and identify the computer to the network.
The Identification dialog (see Figure 9.33) is where you name your computer, or rename your computer. The Workgroup field can be used for peer-to-peer networking; however, in this case you would name the Windows NT domain that you are going to be participating in. The last field, Description, is strictly a comment field and will help the NT administrators to further identify your computer.
Identifying the computer to the network.
The third and final tab, Access Control, is used only when you have installed the File and Print Sharing for Microsoft Networks. This will allow you to specify whether or not you want to use the user list and group list from your Windows NT domain to identify security on the shared resources on your computer.
If you do want to share a locally attached printer but do not want other users spooling their print jobs to your computer, thus hogging your CPU cycles, the user-level access control is essential. This will prevent users from going directly to your computer.
By granting permission only to the administrator, use of the printer, it is then up to the Windows NT administrator to issue permissions for the shared queue on the server. This way the administrator will pass along print jobs from other clients from its print queue and will pass the data directly to your printer.
If you are installing support for other networks in addition to Microsoft Networks, you must designate Microsoft Networks as the Primary Network Logon if you want to take advantage of user profiles and system policies stored on a Windows NT Server. Having the Primary Network Logon as Microsoft Networks will also make sure that the Windows NT Server domain logon script, if available, will be run after any other network's scripts.
Connecting to Windows NT Server domain resources in Windows 95 can be accomplished in many different ways. The easiest way is to open up the Network Neighborhood folder and view the resources that are available. First, choose the server that contains the resource the client wants to connect to. Right-mouse-click on the desired resource, and the client is prompted with a menu that will include the appropriate choice, including Map Network Drive, or Capture Printer Port.
In Windows 95, it is possible to access network shares without assigning a drive letter to them. Further information is in the Windows 95 online documentation.
The Windows NT Workstation v3.51 Client
During the installation of Windows NT Workstation v3.51, the client has the choice of identifying itself to the domain and handling all aspects of adding protocols, network adapters, and certain services, much like the network configuration for Windows 95 and Windows For Workgroups. If an administrator for the domain or a user with permission to add a computer to a domain is performing the installation, the Windows NT workstation can be added to the domain during installation. Otherwise, the computer must be added to the domain after installation, either from the workstation or by using the administrative tools for Windows NT Server (as described above in the section titled "Special Considerations on Configuring the Server for Windows NT Workstation Clients"), in order to gain an authenticated logon to the Windows NT Server domain.
After installation of the operating system, you can enable the workstation to logon to a Windows NT domain by opening the Windows NT Workstation Control Panel. Double-click the Network icon to open the dialog that allows you to add, remove, or configure all of the networking protocols, services, and adapters.
Network settings for Windows NT Workstation v3.51.
At the top of this dialog, shown in Figure 9.34, is the Windows NT Workstation Computer Name that was defined during installation. If a workgroup was joined during installation, that workgroup name will show up as the current workgroup. However, if during installation a Windows NT Server domain was specified, that domain will appear instead of a Workgroup name.
Joining a domain or workgroup on Windows NT Workstation v3.51.
Clicking once on the Change button next to the workgroup or domain name will bring up the Workgroup/Domain Settings dialog. (See Figure 9.35.) It is here that you need to specify the Windows NT Server domain name. This is accomplished by first clicking within the Member of: area on the radio button that reads Domain. Then enter the name of the domain in the associated text box.
If the computer had been added to the domain via the Windows NT Server Manager, that is all the configuring that is necessary to allow an authenticated logon to the Windows NT domain; however, if the computer has not been added to the domain yet, it can be done from this dialog.
When you check the box next to Create Computer Account In Domain, an authorized user can add the computer to the domain from within this dialog. The fields for user name and password must be filled by a user with the authority to add a computer to a domain.
And that's it. Just log off of the Windows NT workstation and press Ctrl+Alt+Del when prompted by the Welcome dialog. If the Windows NT workstation had been previously associated with a workgroup, the From: field will become a drop-down pick box that will allow you to select either the workgroup name or the domain name. Logging into the domain name will give the Windows NT workstation an authenticated logon to the Windows NT Server domain.
The Windows NT Workstation v4.0 Client
With Windows NT Workstation 4.0, the client setup is very similar to the Windows 95 client configuration.
If an administrator for the domain or a user with permission to add a computer to a domain is performing the installation, the Windows NT Workstation computer can be added to the domain during installation. Otherwise, the computer must be added to the domain after installation, either from the workstation or using the administrative tools for Windows NT Server in order to gain an authenticated logon to the Windows NT Server domain.
The Networks Control Panel for Windows NT Workstation 4.0.
From the Windows NT Workstation Control Panel, double-click the Network icon. The resulting tabbed dialog (see Figure 9.36) will allow you to enter all of the information needed to enable a Windows NT workstation to log onto a Windows NT Server domain.
The first tab is Adapters, which allows you to specify one or more network adapter cards. Click the Add button for a list of drivers that ship with Windows NT Workstation. In most cases you can simply scroll down the list and choose the appropriate card; however, as I stated previously, you might be best off using updated drivers obtained directly from the hardware manufacturer. In that case, you would choose the Have Disk button and point to the path that has these newer drivers. Once you have configured the card, you can proceed to the next tab.
The Protocols tab (see Figure 9.37) allows you to specify one or more protocols that you will use to communicate with servers, and if necessary, other workstations. In my example, I have added both NWLink, which is the IPX/SPX compatible protocol, and Microsoft's TCP/IP.
Protocol selection for Windows NT Workstation 4.0.
The next tab is Services (Figure 9.38), which will already have some options already chosen for you. These predetermined services will be sufficient to give the client connectivity to the domain.
Installing Network Services on Windows NT Workstation 4.0.
In order to identify your computer to the Windows NT Server domain, you must have a unique name for the computer and specify whether you are going to log onto a workgroup or a domain. The Identification dialog (see Figure 9.39) allows those specifications to be made. When first entering this dialog, the original choices, made during installation, will be displayed. Click the Change buttons to modify the current entries. Here, you will again get a choice of which type of logon should be made when logging into the workstation, and the option to change the computer name. This computer name should already be defined as part of the domain; however, if this is not already done, a user with permission to add workstations to the domain may click the checkbox that will add the computer to the domain.
Identifying the Windows NT Workstation 4.0 computer to the network.
The final tab allows you to configure the Bindings. (See Figure 9.40.) By default all protocols are bound to all network services. You can disable or change the order of binding through here.
Bindings Configuration for Windows NT Workstation 4.0.
The OS/2 Client
The Microsoft Client for OS/2 is the LAN Manager for OS/2 client software. As with the DOS/Windows 3.1 client, this is a character-based tool and offers no functionality within the OS/2 GUI environment. The tools must be run from an OS/2 command prompt and cannot be accessed through a DOS or Win-OS/2 session within OS/2. This client software is a hold-over from the days when Microsoft packaged OS/2 under their own name.
The Network Client For OS/2 is installed from the CLIENTS\LANMAN.OS2\DISKS directory of the Windows NT Server CD-ROM. Within this directory are subdirectories for each of the individual disk images. SETUP.EXE can be run directly from the DISK1 subdirectory, or by copying these disk images to individual disks. The installation program is essentially the same as the MS-DOS version.
The current version of the Microsoft Client For OS/2 is 2.2c. This version does support domain names; however, it does not have support for DHCP services. Refer to the section on the MS-DOS client installation for more information on this installation.
By enabling the Windows NT Services For Macintosh on the Windows NT Server, a Macintosh client, running version 6.0.7 or greater of the Macintosh operating system, will be able to see the Macintosh-compliant resources available on the NT domain.
On the client itself, it is necessary only to ensure that connectivity has been installed via enabling AppleTalk. When the client opens up Chooser and selects the appropriate AppleTalk Zone that the Windows NT Server has joined, the Windows NT Server will appear. The client can then log onto the NT domain, and have access to shared printers and Macintosh-accessible volumes.
Windows NT Server domain clients can be easily configured, as long as you have the proper information in advance. In all cases, be sure that you know what type of adapter card you are working with, the IRQ and memory settings for the card, a unique name for the computer you are installing the client software on, the name of the domain you want to log onto, the protocol required by the servers or workstations that have resources you want to use, and any other additional services that you might want to install.
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